STIs

Name Transmission Symptoms Treatment If Untreated

Chlamydia

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person. Women: often no symptoms can cause vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain.
Men: pus like discharge from penis or anus as well as burning urine 2–14 days after infection.
Antibiotics for a short period of time. Can cause sterility in both men and women.In women may cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).
Eye infections and pneumonia in newborn infants of infected women.

Genital Herpes

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person.
Oral herpes can be transmitted during oral genital sex.Self transmitted by fingers on oral blisters.
Symptoms can appear 2–20 days after contact with the infected person, but may not appear for months or years after contact.
Itching, tingling and aching of infected areas. Then sore-like blisters which are very painful.
There is no cure.Analgesics can relieve the pain of symptoms. Increases chances of cervical cancer in women.
Can cause birth defects if first outbreak during early pregnancy or if baby comes into contact with sores during birth.

Genital Warts

Sexually transmitted by vaginal, anal or oral sexual activity. Symptoms appear from 6–8 weeks after contact.
Can be seen on exterior or with internal examination.
Removal by cream, medical solutions, laser or frozen with nitrogen. Increase in size and number over whole genital area, particularly moist areas.
Can impede childbirth as they can become quite numerous.

Gonorrhoea

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person.In eyes from contact with discharge of infected person.
NOT spread by towels or toilet seats.
Symptoms start 2–10 days after contact. 80% of women and 10% of men have no symptoms when infected.
Women: vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain.
Men: pain when urinating, sore throat and yellow discharge.Rarely, a yellow discharge from the anus.
A single dose of antibiotics. Severe inflammation of the genitals.
Sterility.
Chronic pelvic pain in women.

Hepatitis B

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person.Sharing drug injecting equipment. Hepatitis B Virus infects the liver.
Symptoms include jaundice, fever, and loss of appetite, tiredness, and pain in joints.
Antivirals.
Hepatitis B is the only STI that might be prevented with a vaccine.
The vaccine involves a course of injections.
Severe cases of hepatitis may cause permanent liver damage.

Hepatitis A

Faecal/oral contact transmits Hepatitis A, so sexual practices such as rimming are risky for Hepatitis A transmission. Infects the liver.
Symptoms include: jaundice, fever, loss of appetite, tiredness, pain in joints.
Rest, avoid alcohol, balanced diet and remain hydrated.
15% relapse after 9 months.
Fatality rate of 0.4% and 1.7% of infections.

HIV/AIDS

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person.
Sharing infected drug-injecting equipment.
Mother to child transmission via pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
Cannot be cured, but treatments can be used to address symptoms.
Retroviral can be used to suppress the illness.
When life-threatening illnesses occur as a result of HIV, the person is diagnosed as having AIDS.

Non Specific Urethritis

Penile/vaginal intercourse.Penile/anal intercourse.
60% due to Chlamydia.
NOT spread by towels or toilet seats.
Women: usually no signs, but if any they are usually the same as Gonorrhoea.
Men: urinating a lot with pain and a watery discharge.
A range of antibiotics because of the range of sources that could have caused it. Pneumonia in newborn infants of women who have it.Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Sterility in men and women.
Ectopic pregnancy.

Syphilis

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person. A painless sore on the penis, vagina, anus or throat. Later signs of syphilis include a rash on the hands and/or feet, or flu like symptoms. Antibiotics. Can lead to serious illness many years later including tumours, joint fusion and swelling around the brain.

Thrush

Altered flora in vagina from taking antibiotics, the pill, stress, pregnancy, diabetes, etc…From sexual contact – foreskin of man’s penis or woman’s vagina. Intense itching, which can interfere with sleep and normal activities.Vaginal tissues swell up and become red and dry.
Discharge thick, white curdy with unpleasant smell.Redness and swelling in genital area.
Anti-fungal medications. May develop in the mouth or bottom of newborn infants.

Trichomoniasis

Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, oral) with an infected person. Women: may be no symptoms. May have a frothy yellow or grey discharge from vagina or discomfort during intercourse, itching and swelling of the genital area.
Men: no symptoms.
Antibiotics. In women, inflamed cervix and urethra.